Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2024; 29(2): 233-239  
Cell‑free systems for a multi‑pronged approach to next‑generation therapeutics and diagnostics
Kyu Jae Kim1 · So‑Jeong Lee1 · Dong‑Myung Kim1
1 Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
Correspondence to: Dong‑Myung Kim
Received: October 1, 2023; Revised: November 10, 2023; Accepted: November 21, 2023; Published online: March 17, 2024.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Effective diagnostics and therapeutics are foundational to modern medical technology. As the drug modality transitions from traditional small-molecule drugs to more intricate protein and nucleic acid-based therapies, there is mounting momentum towards personalized therapeutic approaches. These evolving paradigms challenge conventional biomanufacturing practices, highlighting the need for agile and patient-centric methodologies. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS), which facilitates the direct and programmable production of recombinant proteins, emerges as a compelling alternative. It offers rapid, adaptable, and customized protein production capabilities. Furthermore, by leveraging the core molecular mechanisms of gene expression, CFPS is gaining traction in the diagnostics realm, addressing the growing need for sophisticated diagnostic tools. In this review, we survey recent advancements and discuss how CFPS is poised to markedly reshape therapeutic production and diagnostic methods in the foreseeable future.
Keywords: Cell-free protein synthesis · On-demand biomanufacturing · Protein therapeutics · Personalized therapeutics · Molecular diagnostics

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