Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2024; 29(1): 69-83  
A comparison of metabolic engineering strategies applied in Yarrowia lipolytica for β-carotene production
Redife Aslıhan Uçar1 · Furkan Demirgül2 · Ömer Şimşek3 · Hüseyin Erten4
1 Denizli Food Control Laboratory, Republic of Türkiye Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, 20010 Denizli, Turkey
2 Arts and Design Faculty, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department, Dogus University, 34775 Umraniye, Istanbul, Turkey
3 Chemical and Metallurgy Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpaşa‑Esenler, 34210 Istanbul, Turkey
4 Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department, Cukurova University, 01250 Sarıçam, Adana, Turkey
Correspondence to: Ömer Şimşek
Received: June 20, 2023; Revised: November 11, 2023; Accepted: November 14, 2023; Published online: February 18, 2024.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
With a better understanding of the health benefits of β-carotene, the precursor of vitamin A, as well as its coloring property, the need for this carotenoid has increased in various sectors. In order to meet the increasing demand efficiently, cheaply, and sustainably, interest in heterologous β-carotene production through metabolic engineering strategies has increased in recent years. In this context, although it is not a native producer of β-carotene, Yarrowia lipolytica yeast stands out due to its metabolic, physiological, and genomic properties. Successful results have been obtained by using a series of engineering strategies, including biosynthesis pathway engineering, morphological engineering, and fermentation engineering strategies, in the production of heterologous β-carotene from Y. lipolytica. However, these strategies have various strengths and weaknesses against each other, and there are also some points open to improvement. In this review, the engineering strategies that have been applied and have the potential to be applied for the production of β-carotene from Y. lipolytica have been examined in depth, including their advantages and disadvantages, and compared with each other. Moreover, a future perspective has been presented to increase the potential of using Y. lipolytica yeast as a cell factory in β-carotene production.
Keywords: β-Carotene · Yarrowia lipolytica · Engineering strategies · Cell factory

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