Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2023; 28(6): 936-948  
Harnessing Cellular Organelles to Bring New Functionalities into Yeast
Soo Young Moon, So-Hee Son, Seung Soo Oh, and Ju Young Lee
Soo Young Moon, So-Hee Son, Ju Young Lee*
Research Center for Bio-based Chemistry, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Ulsan 44429, Korea
Tel: +82-52-241-6325; Fax: +82-52-241-6359
Soo Young Moon, So-Hee Son, Seung Soo Oh
School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 37673, Korea
Received: June 29, 2022; Revised: August 17, 2022; Accepted: August 20, 2022; Published online: December 31, 2023.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Subcellular organelles in eukaryotes are unique and specialized physiochemical compartments that separate specific metabolic reactions from the rest of the cytosol, control an intricate metabolic network, and allow the cells to perform specific functions more efficiently. Recently, inspired by this compartmentalization strategy of cells, metabolic compartmentalization has received much attention from researchers in the fields of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for transforming subcellular organelles into microfactories for the production of valuable chemicals. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in yeast subcellular compartmentalization, highlighting the benefits of confining metabolic pathways spatially within particular subcellular organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cell walls. In addition to metabolic compartmentalization, we review emerging strategies for organelle engineering that have proven to be successful for overcoming the inherent capacity and volume constraints of organelles, thereby boosting the performance of the compartmentalized pathways. We also describe and compare various instances in which engineered organelles have been explored as compartments for biotechnological exploitation.
Keywords: synthetic biology, subcellular organelle, organelle chassis, organelle compartmentalization, metabolic engineering

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