Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2023; 28(3): 467-472  
Mechanical Stretch Promotes Invasion of Lung Cancer Cells via Activation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Liang-Kun Chen, Ching-Chi Hsieh, Yi-Chao Huang, Yuan-Jung Huang, Chun-Fan Lung, Wei-En Hsu, Chao-Ling Yao, Tsung-Yu Tseng, Chi-Chung Wang, and Yi-Chiung Hsu
Liang-Kun Chen, Yi-Chao Huang, Yuan-Jung Huang, Chun-Fan Lung, Wei-En Hsu, Yi-Chiung Hsu*
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan
Tel: +886-34227151; Fax: +886-34226062
Ching-Chi Hsieh
Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 505, Taiwan
Yi-Chao Huang
Health Services Training Center HSTC, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
Chao-Ling Yao, Tsung-Yu Tseng
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Chi-Chung Wang
Graduate Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 242, Taiwan
Liang-Kun Chen and Ching-Chi Hsieh contributed equally to this work.
Received: August 31, 2022; Revised: November 13, 2022; Accepted: November 27, 2022; Published online: June 30, 2023.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Most of the gas exchange in the human body is carried out by the lungs, and the physiological activities of the lungs are uninterrupted. Due to the deterioration of the external environment, pulmonary cell lesions are common clinical lung diseases. Mechanical cyclic stretching is one kind of bionic technology to observe lung cancer cells. The A549 cell line is the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line derived from a primary lung tumor. This study investigated the effects of mechanical cyclic stretching on A549 cell activity and gene expression profile. Whereas mechanical cyclic stretching had no significant difference in colony formation and cell migration of A549 cells, the cell invasion increased significantly in A549 cells after stretching. In addition, the microarray data showed that mechanical cyclic stretching altered gene expression, induced inflammation of cells, and activation of Wnt/β-catenin and tumor necrosis factor pathways. More importantly, mechanical cyclic stretching activated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) protein. Therefore, the increase of cell invasion induced by mechanical cyclic stretching might be associated with the activation of TNF-α in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Keywords: mechanical stretch, invasion, lung cancer, microarray

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