Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2023; 28(3): 356-370  
The Enzymatic Process of Macroalgae for Conversion into High-tech Bioproducts
JooHee Han, YeWon Jo, Habin Sun, EunSeo Lee, UnJung Chae, Sung Ok Han, Jong Hun Kim, and Jeong Eun Hyeon
JooHee Han, YeWon Jo, Habin Sun, Jong Hun Kim, Jeong Eun Hyeon*
Department of Next Generation Applied Sciences, Graduate School, Sungshin Women's University, Seoul 01133, Korea
Tel: +82-2-920-7434; Fax: +82-2-920-7434
EunSeo Lee, UnJung Chae, Jong Hun Kim, Jeong Eun Hyeon
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Knowledge- Based Services Engineering, Sungshin Women's University, Seoul 01133, Korea
Sung Ok Han
Department of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
Received: September 1, 2022; Revised: January 12, 2023; Accepted: March 26, 2023; Published online: June 30, 2023.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Macroalgae are one of various groups of multicellular algae include some types of Rhodophyta (red), Phaeophyta (brown), and Chlorophyta (green) macroalgae. They are now a source for biorefineries, as they contribute to energy production as biomass. Algae are worth noting because of their high content in compounds with separate biological activities, including agar, agarose, and carrageenan in red algae; alginates, laminarin, and fucoidan in brown algae; and ulvan, sulfated galactans, and xylans in green algae. Skeletal polysaccharides of red algae are composed of cellulose 1,β-1,3-mannan and β-1,4-acrylic acid. More than half of the dry weight of brown algae is made up of the polysaccharides alginate, laminarin, and fucoidan, and this percentage can even exceed 70% in some species. They are converted to monosaccharides that can be easily used by using polysaccharide hydrolysis enzymes. This process has the potential to maximize biofuel yields. Compared with the enzymatic depolymerization of brown and red algae polysaccharides, the depolymerization of green algae polysaccharides has been less extensively investigated. However, the use of ulvan lyase is very promising because it can degrade ulvan with good specificity, high efficiency, and mild reaction conditions, and it can well maintain the rare sugar structure properties of ulvan. The depolymerization process of macroalgae by chemical hydrolysis requires high cost, causes environmental pollution, and has limited use due to problems such as low yield. Therefore, an environmentally friendly, energy efficient and economical enzymatic depolymerization process of macroalgae using degrading enzyme will be needed.
Keywords: macroalgae, enzymatic process, biorefinery, red algae, brown algae, green algae

This Article

Cited By Articles
  • CrossRef (0)

Social Network Service