Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2022; 27(3): 386-397  
The Inhibitory Effect of Corni Fructus against Oxidative Stressinduced Cellular Damage in C2C12 Murine Myoblasts
Sung Ok Kim, Ji-Suk Jeung, Cheol Park, Hyesook Lee, Sung Hyun Choi, Gi-Young Kim, Hye Young Kim, Yung Hyun Choi, and Eunjoo H. Lee
Sung Ok Kim
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Life and Health, Kyungsung University, Busan 48434, Korea
Sung Ok Kim, Eunjoo H. Lee*
Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea
Tel: +82-31-201-2174; Fax: +82-31-204-8119
E-mail: ehwang@khu.ac.kr
Ji-Suk Jeung
Gurye-gun Agricultural Center and Gurye Wild Flower Institute, Gurye 57660, Korea
Cheol Park
Division of Basic Sciences, College of Liberal Studies, Dong-eui University, Busan 47340, Korea
Hyesook Lee, Yung Hyun Choi*
Anti-Aging Research Center, Dong-eui University, Busan 47340, Korea Department of Biochemistry, College of Korean Medicine, Dong-eui University, Busan 47227, Korea
Tel: +82-51-890-3319; Fax: +82-51-890-3333
E-mail: choiyh@deu.ac.kr
Sung Hyun Choi
Department of System Management, Korea Lift College, Geochang 50141, Korea
Gi-Young Kim
Department of Marine Life Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
Hye Young Kim
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan 49201, Korea
Received: November 7, 2021; Revised: November 16, 2021; Accepted: November 16, 2021; Published online: June 30, 2022.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Although the beneficial biological effects of Cornus officinalis fruit, Corni Fructus, are known to be correlated with antioxidant efficacy, the protective effect of muscle cells against oxidative damage is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effect of Corni Fructus water extract (CFE) against cellular damage caused by oxidative stress in C2C12 murine myoblast cells. The results show that, in the non-cytotoxic range, CFE increased the expression of nuclear factorerythroid- 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its phosphorylation. CFE also up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, one of the representative downstream factors of Nrf2, indicating CFE activated the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. In addition, CFE pretreatment significantly ameliorated growth reduction and suppressed DNA damage and apoptosis in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated C2C12 myoblast, which was correlated with inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation. Furthermore, H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction linked to apoptosis by increasing levels of cytoplasmic cytochrome c and Bax/Bcl-2 was restored by CFE in C2C12 cells. CFE also suppressed H2O2-induced activation of caspase-9 and -3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. However, zinc protoporphyrin, a selective inhibitor of HO-1, markedly abolished the preventive effect of CFE, demonstrating that CFE protected C2C12 myoblasts from H2O2-induced damage via activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant axis, and that CFE may be applicable as a therapeutic agent for oxidative stress-mediated muscle damage.
Keywords: Corni Fructus, DNA damage, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species


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