Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2022; 27(3): 370-378  
Anti-inflammatory Effects of Scrophularia buergeriana Extract Mixture Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria
Thi Ngoc Anh Pham, Hae Lim Kim, Dong-Ryung Lee, Bong-Keun Choi, and Seung Hwan Yang
Thi Ngoc Anh Pham, Hae Lim Kim, Seung Hwan Yang*
Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 59626, Korea
Tel: +82-61-659-7306; Fax: +82-61-659-7309
Dong-Ryung Lee, Bong-Keun Choi
Nutrapharm Tech, Jungwon-gu, Seongnam 13201, Korea
Received: October 11, 2021; Revised: December 5, 2021; Accepted: December 19, 2021; Published online: June 30, 2022.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Scrophularia buergeriana (SB) was once thought to be an herbal remedy with a wide range of uses. Lactobacillus transformation improves the medicinal benefits of biological substances. However, the effect of fermented SBE in macrophages on inflammatory expression is unknown. Furthermore, the synergistic effects of SBE and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have not been previously investigated. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the mixture of SB fermented with different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, and analyzed their characteristics before and after fermentation. The results showed that LAB activities increased the levels of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and iridoids, and SB extract (SBE) stimulated the growth of Lactobacillus strains. Moreover, we also determined the anti-inflammatory effects of the SBE fermented sample in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells. It was observed that the treatment of SBE fermented sample inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production than SBE and also decreased the RNA expression of iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2. The results of this study indicate the potential anti-inflammation activity of lactic acid bacteria-fermented SBE as nutraceutical ingredients.
Keywords: Scrophularia buergeriana, Inflammatory response, lactic acid bacteria, fermentation

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