Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2022; 27(3): 306-335  
Bioactive Peptides and Its Alternative Processes: A Review
Norfahana Abd-Talib, Emmy Liza Anak Yaji, Nur Suraya Abd Wahab, Nadia Razali, Kelly Yong Tau Len, Jumardi Roslan, Nazamid Saari, and Khairul Faizal Pa’ee
Norfahana Abd-Talib, Emmy Liza Anak Yaji, Nur Suraya Abd Wahab, Nadia Razali, Kelly Yong Tau Len, Khairul Faizal Pa’ee*
Green Chemistry and Sustainable Engineering Technology, Food Technology Section, Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL) MICET, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia
Tel: +60-65512063; Fax: +60-65512001
E-mail: khairulfaizal@unikl.edu.my
Jumardi Roslan
School of Food Science and Nutrition, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Nazamid Saari
Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Received: June 21, 2021; Revised: August 2, 2021; Accepted: September 20, 2021; Published online: June 30, 2022.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Bioactive peptides are molecules of paramount importance with significant health benefits. These bioactive peptides extracted from various food sources demonstrated significant bioactivity and potency, including angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors, antioxidants, opioids, and antimicrobials. However, various challenges hindered the industrial-scale production of peptides, such as the sensory performance of peptides due to bitterness, low peptides bioavailability and yield, minimal human tests, unconfirmed molecular mechanisms, and the sustainability of the resources for mass production. The emerging alternative processes such as high hydrostatic pressure, microwave, ultrasound, sub- and supercritical fluids are selectively beneficial, albeit time-consuming and expensive. The diversity of the properties of bioactive peptides complicates the design of the appropriate purification steps, particularly for novel peptides. The integrative process by coupling the production and purification of bioactive peptides to a single integrative system can be a way forward for bioactive peptides production with high purity, potency, and cost-effectiveness. Thus, the review provides a comprehensive insight into the current status, trends, and challenges of bioactive peptide production through conventional and emerging processes. Meanwhile, the potential technological leap through integrative processes is also featured as the sustainability of the process must be assured.
Keywords: bioactive peptides, functional food, bioprocessing technology, integrative process


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