Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2022; 27(2): 193-201  
Monoolein Cubic Phase Containing Cellulose Nanocrystal as a Release Modulator for a Negatively Charged Compound
Seok Ho Park, Wenting Long, and Jin-Chul Kim
Seok Ho Park, Wenting Long, Jin-Chul Kim*
Department of Biomedical Science & Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
Tel: +82-33-250-6561; Fax: +82-33-259-5645
Seok Ho Park and Wenting Long contributed equally to the work.
Received: November 16, 2020; Revised: January 10, 2021; Accepted: January 26, 2021; Published online: April 30, 2022.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Monoolein cubic phase containing cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) was prepared as a vehicle to control the release of a negatively charged payload. Transmission electron microscope photos showed that CNC could be included in the cubic phase without disintegrating the structure. The cubic-to-hexagonal phase transition temperature decreased from about 72 to 70°C as the CNC content increased from 0 to 3% (w/w). X-ray photon spectroscopy re-confirmed that CNC was included in the cubic phase. The release degree of allura red AC (a negatively charged dye) loaded in the cubic phase was strongly dependent on the CNC content of the cubic phase. The cubic phase containing CNC would be able to be used as a vehicle to control the release of a negatively charged payload.
Keywords: cubic phase, cellulose nanocrystal, charged payload, controlled release

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