Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2021; 26(6): 923-932  
Osteostimulating Ability of β-tricalcium Phosphate/collagen Composite as a Practical Bone-grafting Substitute: In vitro and in vivo Comparison Study with Commercial One
En-ji Cheon, Sung-Ho Kim, Dong-Keon Lee, Yun-Kee Jo, Mi-Ran Ki, Chang-Joo Park, Hyon-Seok Jang, Jin-Soo Ahn, Seung-Pil Pack, and Sang-Ho Jun
En-ji Cheon, Jin-Soo Ahn
Department of Dental Biomaterials Science and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea
Sung-Ho Kim, Mi-Ran Ki, Seung-Pil Pack*
Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Korea University, Sejong 30019, Korea
Tel: +82-44-860-1419; Fax: +82-44-860-1410
E-mail: spack@korea.ac.kr
Dong-Keon Lee, Sang-Ho Jun*
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul 02841, Korea
Tel: +82-2-920-6776; Fax: +82-2-921-7348
E-mail: junsang@korea.ac.kr
Yun-Kee Jo
Department of Biomedical Convergence Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
Chang-Joo Park
Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
Hyon-Seok Jang
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ansan Hospital, Korea University, Ansan 15355, Korea
Received: March 7, 2021; Revised: April 28, 2021; Accepted: April 29, 2021; Published online: December 31, 2021.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
biocompatible and biodegradable bioceramic, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has been widely considered as a safe and effective alternative to autograft for bone reconstruction due to its excellent osteoconductivity. Here, we prepared the composite of β-TCP and collagen (β-TCP/col) to investigate whether such a bone extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimetic synthetic bone graft can achieve a highly accelerated bone growth comparable to a commercially available bone substitute. The bone regenerating effects of the β-TCP/col block were evaluated in vitro and in vivo by comparison with Bio-Oss Collagen® (Bio-Oss/col). Preosteoblasts showed similar levels of cell adhesion and proliferation in the β-TCP/col and Bio-Oss/col scaffolds. Expression levels of osteogenic differentiation marker genes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN), increased significantly in cells on the collagen plug compared to the control (without any bone graft material). Notably, cells on the β-TCP/col scaffold exhibited more than 2-fold higher expression levels of ALP and OCN compared to the Bio-Oss/col scaffold. In addition, in vivo animal experiments showed that the β-TCP/col scaffold induced a remarkably accelerated bone formation (~69.54%) compared to the Bio-Oss/col scaffold (~67.08%) and the collagen plug (~11.47%) at 8 weeks after implantation. These results indicated that the composite of β-TCP and collagen (β-TCP/col) showing a comparable bone-regenerating ability could be used as a substitute for the most commercially available Bio-Oss Collagen®.
Keywords: bone regeneration, Beta-TCP, collagen, osteogenesis, composite


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