Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2021; 26(4): 595-605  
Protective Effects of Titanium Dioxide-based Emulsion after Short-term and Long-term Infrared-A Ray Irradiation on Skin Cells
Jun Yeong Kim, Su Ji Kim, Gayeon You, Eun Seo Choi, Joo Hang Lee, Hyejung Mok, and Jun Bae Lee
Jun Yeong Kim, Gayeon You, Eun Seo Choi, Joo Hang Lee, Hyejung Mok*
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
Tel: +82-2-450-0448; Fax: +82-2-454-8217
E-mail: hjmok@konkuk.ac.kr
Su Ji Kim, Jun Bae Lee*
R&I center, COSMAX, Seongnam 13486, Korea
E-mail: jblee@cosmax.com
Jun Yeong Kim, Su Ji Kim, and Gayoun You contributed equally to this work.
Received: September 16, 2020; Revised: January 8, 2021; Accepted: January 10, 2021; Published online: August 30, 2021.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
To accurately evaluate the protective effects of titanium dioxide-based emulsion from infrared-A rays (IRA) irradiation in daily life, we assessed the harmful effects of natural level of IRA irradiation on human skin cells. Using a well-defined solar IRA simulator, short-term (less than seven days) IRA irradiation on fibroblasts at 34°C elicited an increase in the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) mRNA level and decrease in the collagen type-1 α-1 (COL1A1) mRNA level. While short-term IRA exposure showed negligible effects on cell proliferation at 34°C, long-term (24 days) IRA irradiation significantly decreased the proliferation of fibroblasts at the same temperature. However, in the presence of heat stress at 43°C, short-term IRA exposure also elicited severe damage including reduction in cell proliferation and procollagen type 1 C-terminal peptide (PIP) level. In addition, formulated titanium dioxide-based emulsion (IRA protective cream; IRC) with an infrared-A protection factor value of ten could successfully protect cells from damage by short-term and long-term IRA exposures. In this study, we demonstrated that IRC reduces mild and severe damages elicited by natural level of IRA irradiation mimicking system after short-term and long-term exposures.
Keywords: infrared-A ray (IRA), skin aging, cell proliferation, skin cell, emulsion


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