Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2021; 26(4): 546-567  
Plant Platforms for Efficient Heterologous Protein Production
Siddhesh B. Ghag, Vinayak S. Adki, Thumballi R. Ganapathi, and Vishwas A. Bapat
Siddhesh B. Ghag*
School of Biological Sciences, UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai campus, Kalina, Santacruz, Mumbai 400098, India
Tel: +91-9619821702; Fax: +91-22-26532134
Vinayak S. Adki
V. G. Shivdare College ofArts, Commerce and Science, Solapur, Maharashtra 413004, India
Thumballi R. Ganapathi*
Plant Cell Culture Technology Section, Nuclear Agriculture & Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, India
Tel: +91-22-25593276; Fax: +91-22-25505151
Vishwas A. Bapat
Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Vidyanagar, Kolhapur, Maharashtra 416004, India
Received: December 7, 2020; Revised: January 14, 2021; Accepted: January 16, 2021; Published online: August 30, 2021.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Production of recombinant proteins is primarily established in cultures of mammalian, insect and bacterial cells. Concurrently, concept of using plants to produce high-value pharmaceuticals such as vaccines, antibodies, and dietary proteins have received worldwide attention. Newer technologies for plant transformation such as plastid engineering, agroinfiltration, magnifection, and deconstructed viral vectors have been used to enhance the protein production in plants along with the inherent advantage of speed, scale, and cost of production in plant systems. Production of therapeutic proteins in plants has now a more pragmatic approach when several plant-produced vaccines and antibodies successfully completed Phase I clinical trials in humans and were further scheduled for regulatory approvals to manufacture clinical grade products on a large scale which are safe, efficacious, and meet the quality standards. The main thrust of this review is to summarize the data accumulated over the last two decades and recent development and achievements of the plant derived therapeutics. It also attempts to discuss different strategies employed to increase the production so as to make plants more competitive with the established production systems in this industry.
Keywords: biopharmaceuticals, clinical trials, magnifection, protein, plantibodies, vaccines, therapeutics

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