Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2021; 26(1): 145-155  
Repeated Biodiesel Production Using a Cartridge Containing Solid Catalysts Manufactured from Waste Scallop Shells for Simultaneous Lipid Extraction and Transesterification Process
Eun Kyung Son and Sung Ho Yeom
Eun Kyung Son, Sung Ho Yeom*
Department of Biochemical Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 25457, Korea
Tel: +82-33-640-2406
E-mail: shyeom@gwnu.ac.kr
Received: February 5, 2020; Revised: May 5, 2020; Accepted: May 6, 2020; Published online: February 28, 2021.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Biodiesel was produced from waste coffee grounds (WCGs) using solid catalysts manufactured from waste scallop shells through a one-step direct process (OSDP) comprising lipid extraction and simultaneous transesterification in a reactor. To facilitate the reuse of the solid catalysts, a cartridge containing the solid catalysts was devised, and the optimal conditions of the OSDP with the cartridge were investigated. Agitation speed was a critical factor for the operation of this novel process, and should be at least 200 rpm. The optimal total volume of the mixture consisting of methanol and n-hexane (9 mL/g-WCGs) was determined, along with the volume fraction of methanol (18.0%) and n-hexane (82.0%) using a statistical Mixture- Design technique. The optimum catalyst concentration (5.0 wt%), temperature (50°C), and reaction time (13 h) were determined through a Full Factorial Design, followed by a One-Factor-at-a-Time technique. Under these optimum conditions, 8.7% of biodiesel yield was obtained. The concentration of solid catalysts in the cartridge significantly influenced the reuse number of the cartridge. The cartridge containing 5.0 wt% of solid catalysts was reused only for the 2nd round of operation, while that containing 100 wt% of solid catalysts was successfully reused until the 12th round of operation, without a noticeable decrease in biodiesel yield.
Keywords: biodiesel, waste coffee grounds, waste scallop shells, one-step direct process, solid catalyst, cartridge, reuse


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