Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2021; 26(1): 114-124  
Kinetic Model for Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Brewers’ Spent Grain Liquor Using Lactobacillus delbrueckii Subsp. lactis
Alexander Akermann, Jens Weiermüller, Selina Lenz, Jens Christmann, and Roland Ulber
Alexander Akermann, Jens Weiermüller, Selina Lenz, Jens Christmann, Roland Ulber*
TU Kaiserslautern, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Chair of Bioprocess Engineering, Gottlieb-Daimler-Straße 49, Kaiserslautern 67663, Germany
Tel: +49-631-205-4043/-4044; Fax: +49-631-205-4312
Received: May 19, 2020; Revised: July 12, 2020; Accepted: July 16, 2020; Published online: February 28, 2021.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG) liquor can be obtained by pressing fresh BSG and was recently proposed as a fermentation medium. A kinetic model was established, that can predict lactate formation and cell growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis with three BSG liquors of different origin in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation approach. The kinetic model assumes a multi-substrate dependence of glucose and several nitrogencontaining molecule classes on cell growth, substrate uptake, and lactate formation. Furthermore, the model contains terms for the enzymatic degradation of 1,4-α-bond glucose oligomers. The nutrient content of the fermentation media, based on BSG liquor, varied broadly in terms of total carbohydrates (26.27 g·L-1 to 107.17 g·L-1), amino acids (1.52 g·L-1 to 6.78 g·L-1), and proteins (0.16 g·L-1 to 0.46 g·L-1). The deviation between experiment and simulation was - in relation to the large differences in media composition - quite small and ranged from 1.6% to 12.9% (final cell density) and from 5.0% to 24.8% (total lactate concentration). Both the experiment and the simulation showed that serine and alanine play an essential role in the metabolism of the organism. In general, the ratio of carbohydrates to amino acids in the fermentation medium is very important for L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. Therefore, the model can contribute to control the bioprocess and assess fermentation kinetics for unknown BSG liquors.
Keywords: Brewers’ spent grain (BSG) liquor, kinetic modelling, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

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