Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2021; 26(1): 63-70  
Anticancer Activity of the Potential Pyropia yezoensis Galactan Fractionated in Human Prostate Cancer Cells
Thi Ngoc Anh Pham, Bao Le, and Seung Hwan Yang
Thi Ngoc Anh Pham, Bao Le, Seung Hwan Yang*
Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 59626, Korea
Tel: +82-61-659-7306
E-mail: ymichigan@jnu.ac.kr
Received: May 20, 2020; Revised: June 16, 2020; Accepted: June 27, 2020; Published online: February 28, 2021.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Galactan is a major sulfate polysaccharide in the red seaweed, Pyropia yezoensis. In the present study, the prebiotic potential and anticancer activities of three sulfate galactans with different molecular weights (GPYcrude, GPY300, and GPY10) were evaluated in vitro. Monosaccharide composition and structural analyses of these sulfate galactans showed that all polysaccharide fractions contained the same monosaccharides but had different molecular weights. All the polysaccharides tested displayed potential prebiotic activity, with GPY10 noticeably having the best potential compared to others, especially for Bifidobacterium spp., which highlights possible correlations between structural galactan features and prebiotic activity. Furthermore, all three sulfate galactans were cytotoxic to DU145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells, with GPY10 exhibiting the greatest inhibition in DU145 cells. Moreover, GPY10 induced modulates the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), with subsequent increased apoptosis of DU145 prostate cancer cell and modulating the PI3K/AKT/ mTOR signaling pathway. GPY10 increased expression of Bax, executor caspase-3, and initiator caspases 8 and 9. Therefore, sulfate galactans from P. yezoensis could be applied as a novel prebiotic and anticancer compounds in prostate cancer cells.
Keywords: anticancer, sulfate galactan, prebiotics, Pyropia yezoensis


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