Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2021; 26(1): 10-24  
Co-evolving with Nature: The Recent Trends on the Mussel-inspired Polymers in Medical Adhesion
Sayan Basak
Sayan Basak*
Department of Polymer Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata-700009, West Bengal, India
Tel: +91-8584927776
Received: July 19, 2020; Revised: August 25, 2020; Accepted: September 15, 2020; Published online: February 28, 2021.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The rise in the number of daily surgical procedures and the disadvantages posed by the present surgical closure techniques (such as secondary tissue damage and microbial infection) magnifies the immediate need for metamorphosing the current bioadhesives perceiving to tether wounds efficiently. To this context, the emerging scope of biomimetics has allowed mussel inspired adhesives rendering efficient bonding characteristics on a variety of substrates. The mussel adhesion proteins and its derivatives, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine, are therefore widely being studied to modify the biopolymers, attempting to enhance the adhesive attributes. The polarity of the catechol groups in the protein conformation aids in the development of both noncovalent interactions (electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, metal/ligand coordination bond, π–π/cation-π interactions) and covalent interactions (crosslinking), thereby promoting superior tissue adhesion. This narrative is an attempt to tether the recent developments in the mussel-inspired polymer adhesives, connecting the footprints of how these materials evolved with its current state of the art.
Keywords: adhesives, adhesive polymers, biomaterials, biomimetic system, biopolymers, dopa, mussel foot proteins, wet adhesion

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