Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2020; 25(1): 94-103  
A Series of Novel Esters of Capsaicin Analogues Catalyzed by Candida antarctica Lipases
Tania Diaz-Vidal1, Luis Carlos Rosales-Rivera2, Juan C. Mateos-Díaz1, and Jorge A. Rodríguez1,*
1Biotecnología Industrial, Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco, CIATEJ, 45019, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico
2Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
Correspondence to: Jorge A. Rodríguez*
Biotecnología Industrial, Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco, CIATEJ, 45019, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico
Tel: +52-1-33455200 ext. 2108; Fax: +52-1-33455200 ext. 1001
E-mail: jrodriguez@ciatej.mx
Received: July 16, 2019; Revised: September 22, 2019; Accepted: September 23, 2019; Published online: February 29, 2020.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Capsaicin analogues are typically synthetized by condensation of the amide group of vanillylamine with a fatty acid derivative. The enzyme of choice to perform this reaction is Candida antarctica lipase B; however, this enzyme is unable to react with the phenolic substituents of the vanillyl ring. So far, this can only be achieved chemically, resulting in capsaicin esters with higher lipophilicity and less irritation than the parent compound. In need of searching for new capsaicin derivatives, we investigated the transesterification of the phenolic OH group of capsaicin and several capsaicin analogues by Candida antarctica lipase A (CALA) with vinyl esters. Capsaicin esters were successfully synthetized with a reaction yield of 80.6% and 57.5% with vinyl butyrate and vinyl laurate, respectively. When the reactions were performed with capsaicin analogues of different acyl chain lengths, CALA exhibited a noticeable transesterification preference for medium-length capsaicin analogues. In an attempt to explore the catalytic limits of CALA, we performed the transesterification of capsaicin from Capsicum oleoresin. The results showed similar transesterification yields to those obtained with semi-pure capsaicin. Within our knowledge, this is the first report to achieve the synthesis of phenolic OH esters of capsaicin and capsaicin analogues by enzymatic means.
Keywords: lipase, Candida antarctica, capsaicin analogues, capsaicin esters, transesterification, olvanil


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