Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2020; 25(1): 9-15  
Effects of Time on Phenolics and in vitro Bioactivity in Autoclave Extraction of Graviola (Annona muricata) Leaf
Moonkyeung Choi1, Yu-Ra Kang1, Hyo Don Zu2, In-Sook Lim3, Sung Keun Jung4,*, and Yoon Hyuk Chang1,*
1Department of Food and Nutrition, and Bionanocomposite Research Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
2Department of Food Bioscience and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
3School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41556, Korea
Correspondence to: Yoon Hyuk Chang*
Department of Food and Nutrition, and Bionanocomposite Research Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
Tel: +82-2-961-0552; Fax: +82-2-961-0261
E-mail: yhchang@khu.ac.kr
Sung Keun Jung*
School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41556, Korea
Tel: +82-53-950-7764; Fax: +82-53-950-7762
E-mail: skjung04@knu.ac.kr
Received: July 4, 2019; Revised: September 20, 2019; Accepted: October 5, 2019; Published online: February 29, 2020.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
We investigated the effects of different autoclave extraction times (1–6 h) on the antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic compounds isolated from graviola (Annona muricata) leaves. In terms of yield and content of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, rutin, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, the optimal extraction time was 4 h. At this time point, water extracts from graviola leaves (WEG) exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of WEG was significantly stronger than that of acarbose. Furthermore, WEG significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited UVB-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1)-dependent transcription in human keratinocytes. In conclusion, WEG can be used as functional food ingredients in the food industry.
Keywords: bioactive compounds, flavonoids, food ingredients, natural antioxidants, phenolics


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