Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2019; 24(6): 854-869  
Strategies towards Orthopaedic Tissue Engineered Graft Generation: Current Scenario and Application
SaradaPrasanna Mallick1,3, Zerihun Beyene1, Dheerendra Kumar Suman1, Abhimanyu Madhual2, Bhisham Narayan Singh3, and Pradeep Srivastava3,*
1Department of Biotechnology, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Guntur 522302, India
2Department of Orthopaedics, AMRI Hospital, Bhubaneswar 751019, India
3School of Biochemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005, India
Correspondence to: Pradeep Srivastava*
School of Biochemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005, India
Tel: +91-542-6702705; Fax: +91-542-2368428
E-mail: pksrivastava.bce@itbhu.ac.in
Received: March 8, 2019; Revised: June 8, 2019; Accepted: July 4, 2019; Published online: December 31, 2019.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Even though degradation and damage to bone and cartilage tissue can be resolved naturally, but there is a great challenge to regenerate functional tissue due to multiple pathological conditions. To treat the diseased/damaged bone and cartilage tissue as well as to improve or maintain its natural functions and structure, there are different strategies being developed for repair and regeneration of these tissues. Various innovative researches lead to remarkable improvement in clinical outcome of defective bone and cartilage treatments. Biomaterial based scaffolds which are capable of supporting cell growth and applied for replacement of tissue in vivo for both bone and cartilage. The review also delineates about the tissue engineering bioreactors for the recreation of frameworks to recellularise the graft in vitro by presenting them to physiologically significant mechanical or potentially hydrodynamic stimulation condition. This review summarizes and discusses the strategies for regeneration and repair of bone and cartilage tissue, current scenario and application.
Keywords: bone, cartilage, regeneration, biomaterial, bioreactors


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