Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2019; 24(5): 782-792  
An in vitro Study on the Biocompatibility of Titanium Implants Made by Selective Laser Melting
Aranka Ilea1,†, Daniela Timuș2, Nausica Bianca Petrescu1, Olga Sorițău3, Bianca Adina Boșca4, Voicu Mager5, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran6, Anida Maria Băbțan1, Radu Septimiu Câmpian1, and Réka Barabás7
1Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Oral Health and Dental Office Management, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca 400012, Romania
2Faculty of Dentistry, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca 400012, Romania
3Laboratory of Radiotherapy, Tumor and Radiobiology, “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuță” Oncological Institute, Cluj-Napoca 400015, Romania
4Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca 400349, Romania
5Technical University, Cluj-Napoca 400641, Romania
6Faculty of Biology, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca 400015, Romania
7National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca 400293, Romania
8Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, “Babeș-Bolyai” University, Cluj-Napoca 400028, Romania
Correspondence to: Bianca Adina Boșca
Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca 400349, Romania
Tel: +40740248923; Fax: +40-264-597-257
E-mail: bianca.bosca@umfcluj.ro

These two authors have equal contribution as first authors.
Received: March 20, 2019; Revised: May 9, 2019; Accepted: May 19, 2019; Published online: October 31, 2019.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Customized medical implants obtained by selective laser melting have an important applicability due the accurate architecture which promotes the osteointegration, osteoconduction, and osteoinduction. This study assessed the in vitro effect of titanium scaffolds, both pure and covered with a layer of hydroxyapatite, on mesenchymal stem cells harvested from various oral tissues. Eight titanium implants were manufactured by selective laser melting, obtaining a porosity of 63.4% and a pore size of 600 μm. Four matrices were covered with nano-hydroxyapatite. Four lines of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the apical papilla, the dental pulp, the inter-radicular bone, and the tuberosity bone were seeded on the implants. The cells’ proliferation, viability, and differentiation into the osteoblastic lineage were assessed after 18 days, using light microscopy and fluorescence. Our results indicated that the titanium matrices did not exert cytotoxic effect. The cells seeded on titanium matrices conditioned with nano-hydroxyapatite had a slightly higher proliferation rate. The stem cells isolated from the inter-radicular bone had the most intense proliferation and differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage showing a nodular architecture. In conclusion, the oral mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to promote and improve bone regeneration when associated with the titanium scaffolds manufactured by selective laser melting, either non-coated or coated with hydroxyapatite. These findings open new perspectives for the bone reconstruction in the oral and maxillofacial surgery field.
Keywords: titanium, selective laser melting, mesenchymal stem cells, nano-hydroxyapatite, scaffolds


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