Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2019; 24(5): 713-733  
Metabolic Engineering of Bacteria for Renewable Bioethanol Production from Cellulosic Biomass
Sanchita Banerjee1, Gargi Mishra1,2, and Amit Roy1*
1Department of Biotechnology, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235, West Bengal, India
2Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
Correspondence to: Amit Roy
Department of Biotechnology, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235, West Bengal, India
Tel: +91-9433144948
E-mail: amit.roy@visva-bharati.ac.in
Received: April 8, 2019; Revised: June 18, 2019; Accepted: June 24, 2019; Published online: October 31, 2019.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Biomass is renewable and most abundant raw material on earth. Technologies have been employed to utilize this vast renewable resource for biofuel production. In recent years, microorganisms have received much attention for biofuel production so that it can replace the non-renewable fossil fuels. They secrete synergistic enzymes for degrading the complex biomass to simple sugars and subsequently fermenting them to alcohol. With the help of recombinant DNA technology and other metabolic engineering, biomass metabolizing enzymes and bioethanol producing microbes have been developed which have been used as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) reactors. In CBP, both hydrolysis and fermentation are carried out in a single reaction vessel. This review focuses on the recent achievements that have been made in some important industrial bacteria so that they are better capable of scavenging the biomass for bioethanol production. We have concentrated on introduction of heterologous genes and modifications of metabolic pathways in these microbes so that they can ferment a wide variety of sugars and at the same time can overcome the major challenges faced by them during ethanol production.
Keywords: biomass, bioethanol, consolidated bioprocessing organism, CBP, renewable energy, industrial bacteria


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