Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2019; 24(5): 689-701  
Exosomes: Biogenesis, Composition, Functions, and Their Role in Pre-metastatic Niche Formation
Anandrao Ashok Patil1 and Won Jong Rhee1,2,*
1Division of Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Korea
2Department of Bioengineering and Nano-Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Korea
Correspondence to: Won Jong Rhee
Department of Bioengineering and Nano-Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Korea
Tel: +82-32-835-8299; Fax: +82-32-835-0763
E-mail: wjrhee@inu.ac.kr
Received: May 6, 2019; Revised: July 10, 2019; Accepted: July 11, 2019; Published online: October 31, 2019.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Exosomes are a subclass of extracellular vesicles that are released by normal or diseased cells. Exosomes are natural nanoparticles, contain natural cargo, including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and are involved in intercellular communication. Exosomes are detected in the tumor microenvironment and participate in tumorigenesis by regulating angiogenesis, immunity, metastasis, and formation of pre-metastatic niches. This review mainly focuses on exosome biogenesis, composition, their biological and pathological functions, and roles in pre-metastatic niche formation.
Keywords: exosomes, extracellular vesicles, pre-metastatic niche


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