Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2019; 24(3): 454-463  
Effects of Bamboo Stem Extracts on Adipogenic Differentiation and Lipid Metabolism Regulating Genes
Seulmini Goh1, Dongjoo Kim1, Moon-Hee Choi2, Hyun-Jae Shin2, and Soonjo Kwon1,*
1Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea
2Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea
Correspondence to: Soonjo Kwon
Tel: +82-32-860-9176; Fax: +82-32-872-4046
E-mail: soonjo.kwon@inha.ac.kr
Received: January 28, 2019; Revised: April 15, 2019; Accepted: April 16, 2019; Published online: June 30, 2019.
© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, progressive disease that has lasting effects on several organs and tissues. In addition, high glucose levels, high triglyceride and high cholesterol levels increase patient health problems. In this study, we investigated natural materials that can alleviate diabetes symptoms or prevent its onset and assessed extracts of bamboo stem, which has been known for centuries as a functional food. Mouse 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate by adding a mixture of dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and insulin (DMI) to the cell media after cells reached 100% confluence. The cells were then treated with hot water extract (HE), ethanol extract (EE), or methanol extract (ME) of bamboo stem for 4 and 13 days, after which the expression levels of differentiation markers C/EBPβ, PPARγ, and FABP4 were measured. At day 13, changes in metabolic function were assessed by analyzing the expression levels of ABCG1, CD36, and GLUT4 using RT-qPCR. Adipocyte size distribution was determined using a Coulter counter after trypsinization. The total triglyceride content was quantified using an adipogenesis assay kit. The HE-, EE-, and ME-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed increased adipogenesis marker expression, triglyceride content, and adipocyte volumes compared to the controls. The expression of genes related to adipocyte function were elevated in EE- and ME-treated samples. Taken together, these findings indicate that bamboo stem extracts, especially ethanol extract, have prophylactic effects for diabetes that occur through the promotion of adipogenesis and adipocyte functions.
Keywords: bamboo stem extract, diabetes mellitus, 3T3-L1, adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism


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